These four states are:
Waking - the gross physical consciousness
Dreaming - mind is active (astral)
Deep Sleep - mind is blissful, ego not active (causal)
Witnessing (transcendent) - the enlightened "I" is awake in all other states
These are called in Sanskrit: जाग्रत् jagrat, स्वप्न swapna, सुषुप्ति shushupti, and तुरीय turyia
their corresponding energy fields or the bodies in which we experience these states are: स्थूल sthula, सूक्ष्म sukshma, करण karana, and तुरीय turyia (beyond the embodiments) [but in order to have an "I" we are also in the bodies, one part of us observing/witnessing and the rest of us acting.
Sri Vasudeva has given many talks about them and you can also look these up. Turyia is that point of silent mind that still allows us to participate in the world but from a liberated (moksha), untouchable, invincible, pure, and blissful perspective. Sri Vasudeva calls this the rapturous Witness. When we are deserving Grace takes us here, where we are carried by Higher Self and our individual ego lives in grateful surrender, as Jesus like other masters said "In Him I live, move and have my being."
I believe these four stages are the fundamental basis for:
The four padas
The four cardinal directions
Even for the yugas!
Keeping in mind that the world we see with our physical eyes is but a reflection of a subtle blueprint within us that derives from Consciousness - there is going to be a lot of variation if we think about these things using the physical eyes logic only. For example archeologist David Stuart writes in his book The Order of Days: Unlocking the Secrets of the Ancient Maya about the following:
Sunrise is probably represented as East "elk'in" and the colour red "chak"
Sunset is probably represented as West "ochk'in" and the colour black "ik"
Zenith (high noon) is probably represented as North "xaman" and the colour white "sak"
Nadir (midnight) is probably represented as South "nohol" and the colour yellow "k'an"
In contemplation of this - these are the cardinal points in astrology. North is really the idea of "above" and South is really the idea of "below". Our physical brain structure also has these four basic parts plus a brainstem in the middle, each corresponding to either more primitive or more evolved intellectual capabilities - all of which I believe is a reflection of the subtle blueprint of the states of being and their forms as energy fields or "bodies" (see above).
And we see some variations of this in every kind of Medicine Wheel, for example this one from the Hopi Nation:
We see it in Taoism inner alchemy and the four guardian dragons or emperors of the Chinese lunar constellations. The colours are sometimes different and the names of the directions are sometimes different so that part is more to do with cultural and philosophical preferences. And Carl. J. Calleman has written about it from his research about the esoteric secrets of the ancient Maya - that our physical brain evolved into four parts and this has something to do with consciousness development.